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Is a test that examines a urine sample for various compounds, including protein, glucose, and blood cells. It can be used to diagnose urinary tract infections, kidney problems.

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Urinalysis is a diagnostic test that analyzes a urine sample to assess the health of the urinary system and detect potential abnormalities. It involves the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine. Here are some key aspects evaluated in a urinalysis:

1. Color and Appearance

  • Observes the physical characteristics of urine, such as color, clarity, and odor.
  • Abnormal color or turbidity may indicate certain conditions or the presence of substances like blood or pus.

2. pH Level

Measures the acidity or alkalinity of urine.

Normal urine pH ranges between 4.6 and 8, with variations potentially indicating underlying conditions.

3. Specific Gravity

  • Determines the concentration of dissolved substances in urine.
  • Helps evaluate kidney function and hydration status.
  • High specific gravity may indicate dehydration, while low levels could suggest kidney dysfunction.

4. Protein

  • Detects the presence of abnormal amounts of protein in urine, known as proteinuria.
  • Proteinuria can be a sign of kidney damage or other conditions such as urinary tract infections or certain diseases.

5. Glucose

  • Checks for the presence of sugar in the urine.
  • Elevated glucose levels in urine may indicate uncontrolled diabetes or other metabolic disorders.
6. Ketones
  • Measures the presence of ketones in urine, which are byproducts of fat metabolism.
  • Elevated ketone levels may indicate diabetic ketoacidosis or other conditions.

7. Blood

  • Detects the presence of blood in urine, which can indicate various conditions such as urinary tract infections, kidney stones, or kidney disease.

8. Microscopic Examination

  • Involves examining urine sediment under a microscope to identify cells, bacteria, crystals, or other particles.
  • Helps diagnose urinary tract infections, kidney disease, or other abnormalities.

A urinalysis provides valuable insights into the health of the urinary system and can assist in the diagnosis of various conditions. It is commonly used as a screening tool during routine check-ups, to monitor chronic conditions, or to evaluate specific symptoms related to the urinary tract.